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    History of Jerusalem

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    تسنيم

    عدد المساهمات : 3
    تاريخ التسجيل : 29/11/2010
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    History of Jerusalem

    مُساهمة  تسنيم في الإثنين نوفمبر 29, 2010 9:41 am

    History of Jerusalem



    Is the first Qiblah and the third holiest site after Mecca and Medina, theater prophecies and flower of cities, and position of the eyes of human beings since ancient times.



    Location:

    The city of Jerusalem in the center of Palestine almost to the east of the Mediterranean Sea on a series of mountain slopes tend to the west and to the east. And rising from the sea an average of about 750 m and on the surface of the Dead Sea about 1150, located at longitude 35 degrees 13 minutes east longitude, latitude 31 degrees 52 minutes north. City is a distance of 52 km from the Mediterranean Sea in a straight line and 22 km from the Dead Sea and 250 km from the Red Sea, about 88 km from Amman, and Beirut 388 km, Damascus and 290 km.



    Established:

    The oldest root of the historic building Jerusalem back to the name of its builder, a Iilia bin toss Ben Sam son of Noah, peace be upon him - s the one the names of Jerusalem - and was told that "Malik Sadiq," A Kings Jebusites - the months, tribes, the Canaanites - the first charted and built the city of Jerusalem and that year (3000 BC). which is called "Jebus" was known "Malik sincere" piety and love of peace so-called "king of peace," hence the name of the city of Salem or Shalem or "Or Shalem," meaning let the Shalem found, or the city of Salem Consequently, Jerusalem was a household name and is present before the rape Israelis this city from the hands of their owners Jebusites, which he called Israelis also "Zion" in relation to a mountain in Palestine, was defeated on the city name "Jerusalem" which is the name of the names of Allah, and so called "House of the Holy "which is the house of God.



    Expansion and reconstruction:

    1 - in the era of the Prophet peace be upon him Solomon built the Jerusalem expanded role and built palaces and became the capital of the state, stretching from the Euphrates to the border of Egypt. The Temple of Solomon the most important and famous archaeological huge building, built by the Canaanites to be a temple belonging to the Palace.

    2 - The second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab in which a number of reforms.

    3 - built in 72 AH Abdul Malik bin Marwan, the Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa Mosque, and the purpose was to prevent the pilgrims from Mecca, which settled the rival Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to Jerusalem.

    4 - 425 years old e proceeded to the seventh Fatimid Caliph Ali Abu al-Hasan on a wall of the city of Jerusalem after the construction of a fence-Ramla, in the Fatimid era built the first great hospital in Jerusalem from the huge endowments.

    5 - year 651 AH / 1253 At the time of the Mamluk Jerusalem became the center of the most important scientific centers in the Islamic world.

    6 - new year 1542 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent the current fence that surrounds the old city and a length of 4200 m and a height of 40 feet.



    Features:

    The land of the city of Jerusalem in ancient times the desert surrounded by the destinations of the three eastern and south-western valleys, and destinations north and north-west was exposed and surrounded by as well as the mountains that held by the city, Mount Moriah (which means selected) based upon Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock, and brings about 770 m, Mount Walker, where the Church of the Resurrection and Mount Nbritta near Herod's Gate, Mount Zion Mount David, which is known in the south-west of the Old City of Jerusalem. The estimated area of the city with 19 331 km, and was surrounded by a wall impervious to the shape of a square with a height of 40 feet and 34 by the regular tower and the wall, seven sections, namely:

    1 - Jaffa Gate, 2 - the new section, 3 - Damascus Gate, 4 - Herod's Gate,

    5 - Gate, 6 - Lions Gate, 7 - the door of the Prophet David, peace be upon him.



    Valleys that surround Jerusalem:

    1 - the valley of hell: and his name is the old "Kidron" The Arabs call the "Valley of the Sloan."

    2 - Wadi Rababa: The name "old Hinnom."

    3 - Valley or "Valley": The so-called "Terobion" means "cheese makers."



    Mountains overlooking Jerusalem:

    1 - Mount Scopus: Located in the south of Jerusalem and its summit above 795 m above sea level, and on the side of this mountain, the tomb of Sheikh Ahmed Abu Abbas, alias Abu Thor, one of the mujahideen, who participated in the conquest of Jerusalem to Saladin.

    2 - Mount Sinai or Mount of Olives: and rises 826 m above sea level and is located east of the town is holy, He reveals the city of Jerusalem, and believed that Christ rose from the mountain to the sky.

    3 - Mount Scopus: located to the north of the city of Jerusalem, and said to him also "Mountain Scene," which was launched by the Western name "Mount Scopus," attributed to the Roman commander.

    4 - The Mountain of the Prophet Samuel: Located in the north-west of Jerusalem and rise 885 m above sea level.

    5 - Aasor Tel: distortion "Baal Hazor," meaning village of Baal, and rise in 1016 above sea level, is located between the villages of Deir Jarir and Slod, which is fourth in the high mountain in Palestine.



    And describes the endorser Din al-Hanbali Jerusalem at the end of the nineteenth century, 900 years old e said:

    "A great city court building between the mountains and valleys, and some city building high-altitude, and some low in the valley and most of the buildings that are in high places Supervisor of the lesser ones of the low places and the streets of the city, some easy and some are bumpy, and in most places there are bottom of the old buildings, was built New to building above an old building, which is often well prepared for the storage of water, because its water collected from the rain. "



    Places the Court building in Jerusalem:

    Markets:

    Market Alqtanin: next to the door of the mosque to the west, a market in the very high and there is no perfection like in many of the country.

    Three markets: the neighboring door near the gate of Hebron known as the mihrab, a Roman building. The first of these markets market spice dealers, a western in the west was stopped by Saladin on the school authority.



    Alleys:

    Lanes famous in Jerusalem are:

    Moroccan Quarter, Quarter Honor, hot science, hot Alehiadrp, Asaltin hot, hot brush, hot Bani Harith, hot organic deposition.



    Castle:

    The fort is a great building the apparent meaning of Jerusalem from the West, and old, known Bmihrab David, peace be upon him, and in this fort tower is a great building called the Tower of David, one of the old building Slimani, and the knock which Tabkhanp every night between Morocco and dinner usually castles in the country.



    Sloan was appointed:

    The apparent meaning of the Jerusalem of the Qiblah valley, is overseen by the southern wall of the mosque, has been reported in some important news this eye, description, position, one of the springs mentioned in the Holy Book:

    {}, Two and two (Rahman / 50).



    Wells:

    Bir Ayoub, is near the Sloan appointed in relation to the Prophet Ayyub peace be upon him, and said that God said to His Prophet Job peace be upon him:

    {Run your foot this bather a cool drink} (r / 42).



    Mosques:

    1 - Al-Aqsa Mosque: which is located in the middle of the noble rock.

    2 - Moroccan Mosque: It is the outer layer of the Al Aqsa Mosque from the west.

    3 - Mosque of the Prophet David, peace be upon him.



    Cemeteries:

    1 - tomb of the Prophet Moses, peace be upon him: to the east of Jerusalem.

    2 - Tomb of the Prophet David, peace be upon him: in the church known as the "Paljesmnip" East Jerusalem in the valley. As well as the tomb and the tomb of Yahya Zakaria peace be upon them.

    3 - the tomb of Mary: a Algismanip in the church, inside a mountain outside the stage door of the tribes.

    4 - Tomb of Herod: It is known Baqi Balsahrp apparent in the city of Jerusalem from the north and the Muslims buried the dead and the meaning of "watchful" the land of no sleep and it stayed up.

    5 - Tomb of the door of mercy: the wall next to the Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    6 - cemetery of the martyrs cemetery Mamla: It is the largest graveyard of the city lies the apparent meaning of Jerusalem from the West.



    Schools:

    In the city schools and scientific institutes and many religious, charitable, including:

    Public schools: a teachers house, House and parameters, and the school Errachidia, and safety, trochlear, and age, and lead, and a school spot ..... Etc..

    Old school: There are about 70 old school the most important grammar school, Nasiriyah, Altzkrip, municipal, Katunip, Alorgp .... Etc..



    Libraries:

    There are 34 names of different libraries recall the oldest:

    1 - Library of St. Saviour: Established in 1558.

    2 - El-Khalili Library: Established in 1725.

    3 - Orthodox Patriarchate Library: Established in 1865.

    4 - Library of the Arab League.

    5 - Khalidiya Library: Established in 1900.

    6 - private libraries belonging to the families of some old ones: Honorary Library and the Library of Al-Budeiri, Katina each library, the Library of each timer.





    Museums:

    1 - Museum of the effects of the government: established in 1927.

    2 - Museum of Islamic Art: Islamic Supreme Council founded in 1341 AH / 1923.



    Other historical places:

    Church of garbage, the Resurrection, or tanning Almarstan, imprisonment of Christ, Aljtsimani, the Via Dolorosa, the validity, the museum, the Mount of Olives.



    Domes:

    Dome of the Rock, the Dome of the series, the Dome of Gabriel, the Dome of the Prophet, the Dome of the lead, the Dome of the Ascension.



    From the memory of history:

    3000 years BC. Ammonites, emigrated to Palestine Arabs.

    1900 BC. M. Hagar Abraham peace be upon him out of Ur to Palestine.

    1785 years BC. M Hyksos migration in this period, the family of Jacob emigrated to Egypt about 1740 BC. M.

    1290 years BC. M exit Moses peace be upon him and his people from Egypt to Palestine.

    Year 1003 BCE. M taken David Orr Schlemm's peace be upon him as his capital and was succeeded by his son Solomon peace be upon him.

    722 BC. M the fall of Israel by the Assyrian Sargon II.

    In 586 BC. M the fall of Judea by Nebuchadnezzar the Babylonian.

    536 years BC. Occupied the Achaemenid Cyrus of Babylon, and allowing the displacement of Jews to Palestine.

    Year 538 BC. Alakmignon m occupied Palestine, and the renewal of Cyrus the Temple of Solomon and the construction of the city.

    Year 332 BC. Alexander the Great occupied the Palestine, and was chaos in the country after his death in 322 BC. M.

    62 years BC. M Romans occupied Palestine.

    Year 37 BC. M Monument Romans Hero dos Edomite king of Galilee and Jerusalem, has been governed until 16:00 In his time the Prophet was born Jesus in Bethlehem.

    70 AD there was a riot in the city of Jerusalem and laid siege to Tireis Roman and later the city looting, arson and murder, burned down the temple built by Herod.

    135 AD raised Jewish riots once again but that all the Roman Emperor Hderyan by harassing them and destroyed the city, burning its location and around Jerusalem to the city of idolatry and allowed the Christians to evaluate where to be out of the Jews and named the city "Aljka Beto Lena" is derived from the family of Hadrian invited Elia.

    324 years old became a Byzantine Palestine under Israeli occupation.

    Year AD 614 Chosroes Apervez occupied Palestine.

    On the night of the month of Rajab 27 Hijra year before prisoners of His Messenger of Allah may Allah bless him and his family and him from the Sacred Mosque to the Aqsa Mosque.

    In August 2 years Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him and his family and the first prayer toward Jerusalem and then turned to kiss the Kaaba on this date.

    Year 7 AH / 628 AD Byzantine Emperor Heraclius was able to expel the Persians from Jerusalem.

    Year 8 AH / 629 AD occurred the battle of Muta.

    Year 9 AH / 630 CE Battle of Tabuk took place.

    Year 13 AH / 634 AD battle took place Ajnadin where Muslims and defeated the Romans.

    Year 15 AH / 636 AD occurred the battle of the Yarmouk and the Muslims won.

    Year 17 AH / 638 AD Umar ibn al-Khattab entered Jerusalem and the benefit of its people.

    Year 40 AH / 661 AD, taking Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan Allegiance in Jerusalem, chose the city of Damascus the capital of his caliphate.

    Year 65 e / 684 m and has been a revolution led by Nael Judhaami Palestine in support of Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr.

    72 AH / 691 AD taken Sulaiman bin Abdul Malik Allegiance in Jerusalem, and built him a palace in Ramle.

    In the period between the years (163 218 H) visited Palestine and later the Abbasid Mahdi Abbasi safe.

    Included in 264 AH Ahmad ibn Tulun in the state of Palestine to Egypt.

    Year 385 AH / 968 took control of the Fatimids in Palestine.

    E 417 years occurred the battle of NATO and the triumph of Ashkelon, Arab princes to the Fatimids.

    492 years old e better capture the Fatimid vizier Badr al-Jamali bin Jerusalem.

    AH 493, the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem and committed a bloody metaphor in the courtyard of Al-Aqsa Mosque and waved on the rock of the Holy Cross.

    In 583 AH / 1187 to recover Jerusalem from the Crusaders by Saladin in the aftermath of the Battle of Hattin.

    In 586 AH / 1190 campaign and signed Richard the Lion Heart of England and Philip II, King of France (Third Crusade), and he seized on Palestine in the battle of "Orsov."

    637 AH / 1239 seized Ayyubid Jerusalem.

    Year 651 AH / 1253 Mamluks took over Palestine.

    AH 659 / 1260 occurred the battle of "Eye of Goliath" and the defeat of the Mongols.

    Year 690 H / 1291 ended the Sultan, "Ashraf bin Qalawun" Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem.

    In 922 AH / captured Sultan "Selim the Ottoman" on Jerusalem.

    Years old in 1831 Jerusalem fell in the hands of "Ibrahim Pasha, Ottoman."

    1854 AD A first Jewish neighborhood called "neighborhood Montvuori" in Jerusalem in relation to the Jewish man was able to purchase Palestinian land with the assistance of the Ottoman Sultan.

    1920 and placed Palestine under the British Mandate for the establishment of the Jewish state.

    1948 Palestine raped by the Jews and the expulsion of Palestinian Arabs.

    In 1967 completed the Jews control the All-Palestine and Jerusalem after a setback in June, and returned fire with the name "Jerusalem".

    1980 announced the annexation of Jerusalem to the political state of British occupation under the banner of reunification of Jerusalem.



    Sources:

    - Jerusalem and the Aqsa Mosque historical study documented Rating: Mohamed Hassan syrup / i 1 / year 1994, Beirut.

    - Encyclopedia of the holy sites / section of Jerusalem / Al-Khalili Jafar / m 2 / year 1987 in Beirut.

    - History of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine / Philippe Hitti / c / 2, p. 35.

    - Galilee mankind in the history of Jerusalem and Hebron / endorser Din al-Hanbali / c 1.

    - Introduction to the History of Ancient Civilizations / Taha Baqir / c 1 / r 209 / i 2 / 1955, Baghdad.

    - History of Palestine in the Islamic Middle Ages / d. Dr Omar Farouk. Muhsin Muhammad Hussain / year in 1987 Baghdad
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    anwar
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    عدد المساهمات : 15
    تاريخ التسجيل : 24/11/2010

    رد: History of Jerusalem

    مُساهمة  anwar في الثلاثاء نوفمبر 30, 2010 2:44 am

    شكرا الك كتيييييييييييير يا تسنيم
    موضوع مميز Very Happy

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس سبتمبر 21, 2017 10:19 pm